Charlottesville-Albemarle's water supply is provided publicly by the Rivanna Water and Sewer Authority (the "RWSA") or privately through wells and other groundwater sources.
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- Main article: Rivanna Water and Sewer Authority
The RWSA is a wholesale agency with only two customers: the Charlottesville Water and Sewer Division and the Albemarle County Service Authority, agencies that serve individual retail customers. These operate and administer the water supply from the following resources:
Water for Charlottesville and its urban ring comes from:
- Sugar Hollow Reservoir, formed by the Sugar Hollow Dam on the Moormans River.
- Ragged Mountain Reservoir, which receives water from Sugar Hollow via the Sugar Hollow Pipeline.
- South Fork Rivanna Reservoir, on the Rivanna River.
Community Water Supply Plan
- Main article: Community Water Supply Plan
The actions of the RWSA and are guided by the Community Water Supply Plan, which must be endorsed by local governments.
- November 30, 1897 – Charlottesville City Council holds a special meeting to discuss supplementing the area's water supply and agreed to sell $35,000 worth of bonds to finance improvements. 
- January 13, 1898 – Charlottesville City Council adopts a "definite plan for augmenting the city's water supply" that would then go to voters for a full vote. The idea was to take water from Moores Creek at Hartman's Mill during the spring time. 
- December 1, 1906 – C.D. Carter, Charlottesville's Superintendent of Water and Sewage, publishes a letter in the Daily Progress explaining why the existing infrastructure was over capacity. At the time, he said the city had a water supply capacity of 150 million gallons or about 150 days of supply. There was also a leak in a dam that meant the loss of 100,000 gallons a day. The purpose of the letter was to encourage votes to support a bond referendum. 
- October 17, 1944 – The Daily Progress reports that a pump station will be upgraded to pull more water from the Moormans's River to prevent water shortages. 
- In June 1948, The Albemarle County Medical Society recommended that flourine be added to the water supply. 
- In September 1954, Charlottesville City Manager James E. Bowen warns there are only four months of water supply left, and that conditions of water are not good and require heavy treatment to be potable. 
- July 25, 1974 – Albemarle BOS Discussion of water supply management that had been prepared by the Thomas Jefferson Planning District Commission (begins on page 30) 
- December 17, 1974 – Joint meeting of City Council and Board of Supervisors on study of South Fork Rivanna Reservoir 
- January 22, 1975 – Issues of runoff into South Fork Rivanna Reservoir come up repeatedly during discussion of Four Seasons West rezoning 
- Web. Still the Water Question, Daily Progress Digitized Microfilm, Lindsay family, December 1, 1897, retrieved December 1, 2022. Print. December 1, 1897 page 1.
- Web. Plan To Get More Water Recommended by the Council, Daily Progress Digitized Microfilm, Lindsay family, January 14, 1898, retrieved January 14, 2023. Print. January 14, 1898 page 1.
- Web. Our Watger Plant is Overtaxed, C.D. Carter, Daily Progress Digitized Microfilm, Lindsay family, December 1, 1906, retrieved December 1, 2022.
- Web. City to Enlarge Mechum's Pump, Daily Progress Digitized Microfilm, Lindsay family, October 17, 1944, retrieved October 17, 2022. Print. October 17, 1944 page 1.
- Web. Adding Flourine To Water Supply Urged, Staff Reports, Daily Progress Digitized Microfilm, Lindsay family, June 14, 1950, retrieved November 4, 2017 from University of Virginia Library. Print. June 4, 1948 page 3.
- Web. City Has Four Months of Water Supply On Hand, Daily Progress Digitized Microfilm, Lindsay family, September 18, 1954, retrieved September 17, 2022. Print. September 18, 1954 page 1.
- Web. County of Albemarle, Albemarle County Board of Supervisors Minutes, Albemarle County Board of Supervisors, Albemarle County, July 25, 1974, retrieved July 2, 2019.
- Web. County of Albemarle, Albemarle County Board of Supervisors Minutes, Albemarle County Board of Supervisors, Albemarle County, December 17, 1974, retrieved July 2, 2019.
- Web. County of Albemarle, Albemarle County Board of Supervisors Minutes, Albemarle County Board of Supervisors, Albemarle County, January 22, 1975, retrieved July 2, 2019.