Independent Citizens Association

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The Independent Citizens Association was a political group that sought to challenge the Democratic party's lock on City Council in the mid-20th century.

1948 election

In 1948, James Barr III became the first Republican elected to City Council even though he technically ran as an independent. [1]

1950 election

Francis Fife was the group's candidate in the 1950 City Council election. He came in third behind William R. Hill and Gus K. Tebell. [1]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Web. Hill and Tebell Win Council Seats;Vote Exceeds 2,500, Staff Reports, Daily Progress Digitized Microfilm, Lindsay family, June 14, 1950, retrieved June 13, 2017 from University of Virginia Library. Print. June 14, 1950 page 1.