Charlottesville is an independent city located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is considered a county-equivalent. As of 2017, its population was 48,019, while the Charlottesville Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) contains 228,825.  Charlottesville became independent from Albemarle County in 1888.
According to the Constitution of Virginia (Local Government): "There shall be elected by the qualified voters of each...city a treasurer, a sheriff, an attorney for the Commonwealth, a clerk, who shall be clerk of the court in the office of which deeds are recorded, and a commissioner of revenue. " "The qualified voters of each city...shall elect...a council for the terms provided by charter."
The City operates under a City Manager/Council form of government according the the current 1946 city charter as granted by the General Assembly. The City of Charlottesville voters elect a five-member Council to serve at-large as the City’s legislative and governing body. Members serve staggered four-year terms, and they select one Councilor to serve as Mayor and one as Vice-Mayor for two years. Municipal elections are held in November in odd-numbered years. The Mayor presides over meetings, calls special meetings, and serves as the ceremonial head of government. The City Council appoints the City Manager, Director of Finance, City Assessor, Clerk of Council and members of major policymaking Boards and Commissions.
The structure of Charlottesville's municipal government is laid out in the City of Charlottesville Charter, the city's "constitution." This Dillon Rule charter establishes City Council as the legislative branch of government and grants Council certain powers and responsibilities. Council's most significant role is to enact laws, to adopt the city's operating budget and to hire the City Manager to run most city operations. Council also has the authority to decide who sits on various city boards and commissions. As a result, City Council has significant influence in shaping city policies and programs.
Originating in 1908 in Staunton, Virginia, the council-manager plan has become the most widely accepted system of local government in the United States. The City of Charlottesville has operated under the Council-Manager plan since September 1, 1946. Under this form, the Charlottesville City Council is elected at-large. The Council then appoints a professional manager to handle the day-to-day affairs of the city.
- The plan is modeled after the American corporation, with its shareholders (voters), board of directors (City Council) and Chief Executive Officer (City Manager). Of the 38 cities in the Commonweath of Virginia, the City of Richmond is the only city operating under the Mayor-Council form of government. However, it is used by a majority of towns in Virginia, inlcuding the Town of Scottesville.
Since 1922, the City of Charlottesville has utilized a council-manager system. In this form of municipal government, the legislative and policy-determining powers are held by an elected council that employs a city manager who is responsible to the council for city administration. The council is headed by a president (mayor), elected by the council from among its members.
Charlottesville's five Constitutional Officers are elected by the voters at large. The existence of this position is set forth in the Constitution of Virginia, and so is called a Constitutional Office. Each officer serves a four-year term, except for the Clerk of the Circuit Court, who serves an eight-year term.
Commissioner of Revenue
- Main Article: Commissioner of the Revenue
The Commissioner of the Revenue is the chief tax assessing officer of the local government.
- Main Article: Office of the City Treasurer
- Main Article: Charlottesville sheriff
Clerk of Circuit Court
- Main Article: Clerk of Court, Charlottesville Circuit Court
- Main Article: Charlottesville City Commonwealth's Attorney
- Main article: Charlottesville City School Board
The Charlottesville City School Board is a seven-member board that is responsible for directing the program of public education for the City’s approximately 4,000 students. Board Members have been elected since 2006. Prior to that, they were appointed by City Council. School Board candidates in Virginia must qualify for the ballot as “independents” (by voter petition signatures), so primary elections are never held for school board.
The Virginia Constitution vests the State Board of Education with authority to establish school divisions, subject to "such criteria and conditions as the General Assembly may prescribe." With a few exceptions for some towns and city/county combinations, Board has established divisions along city and county lines. (Virginia Constitution, Article VIII, §5; Virginia Code, §22.1-25). School board members for school divisions composed of single city are selected by the city council or by popular election. (§§22.1-48 et seq. and 22.1-57.1 et seq.)
The Charlottesville City Council is the city's primary legislative body. It is responsible for approving and adopting the city budget, levying taxes and making or amending city laws, policies and ordinances. The Rules of City Council are drafted and approved by the five Council members at the beginning of each two-year Council term.
The city council consists of five members including the mayor. All members are elected at large and serve four-year, staggered terms. As for historically under-represented groups, the city has about the same percentage of blacks in council as in the general populations; in Charlottesville, blacks makeup 18.3 percent of the population  and 20 percent of the council.
The council post videos of council meetings online as well as searchable databases of legislation. Council does not post members’ personal financial disclosure statements or lobbying records.
- Main Article: Mayor of Charlottesville
The Mayor of Charlottesville is selected from among the five members of the Charlottesville City Council. In this weak-mayor and council form of municipal government, the mayor is merely council chairman and has largely only ceremonial and parliamentary functions, though the mayor does have the power to set the agenda for council meetings, presides over council meetings and official city ceremonies.
In addition, the president enforces the Rules of City Council, which establish how Council conducts its business. The president also has to certify (by signing) all ordinances, orders, resolutions and petitions adopted by Council, as well as any leases or contracts requiring Council authorization. The mayor also represents the city on the state, national and international levels.
- Councilors make $18,000 a year and the mayor makes $2,000 a year; the maximum range allowed under state guidelines.
Although Charlottesville isn’t the only Virginia municipality to issue credit cards to its elected officials, the practice isn’t standard operating procedure across the state. The city’s credit card use policy was created in 2008 and revised in 2015 by then-City Manager Maurice Jones. The mayor’s monthly limit is $2,500, the other four councilor’s have a $20,000 monthly credit limit. 
Medical and dental insurance coverage
- Main Article: City Manager
The City Manager is the city's chief executive. The responsibilities of the city manager include overseeing the city's day-to-day operations, planning and implementing the city's operating budget, and appointing departmental directors and other senior-level positions. The City Council delegates broad administrative power to the city manager subject to its review. Qualifications, powers and duties of the city manager are provided for in the city charter.
- Main Article: City Attorney
Clerk of Council
- Main Article: Clerk of the Council
Director of Finance
- Main Article: Director of Finance
Real Estate Assessor
Advisory boards and commissions
- Main Article List of Boards and Commissions
City Council appoints members to approximately 40 various Boards and Commissions as terms expire or appointees resign. A series of advisory boards and commissions that are made up of non-elected citizens, whom city council members have appointed and approved, advises the Charlottesville City Council. The roles of these boards and commissions are to review, debate, and comment upon city policies and legislation and to make recommendations to the city council.
- Code of Virginia: The governing body of any locality may appoint such advisory boards, committees, and commissions as it deems necessary to advise the governing body with regard to any matter of concern to the locality. Members shall be appointed to serve at the pleasure of the governing body.
- The governing body may provide for (i) reimbursement of the actual expenses incurred by members while serving on such advisory boards, committees, and commissions and (ii) compensation to members for their services for attendance at regularly scheduled meetings, and for training in an amount determined appropriate by the governing body from available funds.
Main Article: Planning Commission
Each locality is required to create a local planning commission in order to promote the orderly development of the locality and its environs. In accomplishing its objectives, the local planning commissions serve primarily in an advisory capacity to the governing bodies. Va. Code § 15.2-2210.
Some of the agencies are strictly volunteer without any compensation. Others, established by State Code, allow "token" compensation and some reimbursement of expenses incurred. For a list of Charlottesville's commissions, boards and committees
On March 2, 2020, pursuant to Sections 11-1 and 11-2 of the City Code, the City Manager, Tarron J. Richardson, submitted a budget for fiscal year (FY) 2021 addressed the Capital Improvement Program (CIP): These revenue sources, as well as the year end appropriations will play a significant role in funding future CIP projects. Over the next five (5) years, the City of Charlottesville is projected to fund $128M in CIP projects. Our long-term financial policy has a debt service maximum of 10%, with a target of 9%. By FY 2025, our projections indicate that the debt service rate will be approaching the 9% target.
- Cities in Virginia are authorized to issue general obligation bonds so long as total general indebtedness does not exceed ten (10%) percent of assessed value of taxable real property; no referendum required. There is no amount limitation imposed regarding revenue bonds. (Virginia Constitution, Article VII, §10)
As of 2018 the City of Charlottesville has had the first Independent mayor. Since 1922, 35 out of the 38 appointed mayors have been affiliated with the Democratic Party, two were affiliated with the Republican Party. While council elections in the city are nonpartisan, most officeholders have been affiliated with the Democratic Party since the 1880's.
- In 1883 the Conservative Party changed its name to the Democratic Party. Thomas S. Martin, a Local resident, railroad attorney and longtime U.S. senator (serving from 1895 until his death in 1919) was an architect of the state Democratic Party machine, during his time was known as the Martin Organization, (later becoming known as the Byrd Organization).
See Mayor of Charlottesville for a list of the city’s mayors and their partisan affiliation.
- Council passed a resolution calling for an April 15, 1954 referendum on creating a housing authority.  The vote was close with 1,105 city voters approving the authority, and 1,069 voting no. 
- While City Council was unanimous in its decision, the 1970 proposed referendum to merger with Albemarle County failed 
- A Revenue Sharing Agreement, dated February 17, 1982, between the County of Albemarle and the City of Charlottesville was approved in a public referendum on May 18, 1982.
- As a result of a November 8, 2005 City-wide referendum, Charlottesville City School board members are elected. Prior to that, they were appointed by City Council. This transition to an elected school board occurred with the 2006 election.
1982 Advisory Referendum
In 1980, Council appointed a Committee to Study Council Change, to study whether the city should change the method by which Councilors were elected. Voters approved a referendum on the change in November 1981, but a majority of Councilors, lead by Mayor Frank Buck, opted to hold a second ballot. Voters on Tuesday, May 4, 1982, rejected the idea.
See also: City elections in Charlottesville (2019)
The city of Charlottesville held general elections for City Council (3 of 5 seats), Charlottesville City School Board (4 of 7 seats), Soil & Water Conservation District Director and the Clerk of Court on November 5, 2019. The Democratic primary was on June 11, 2019. The deadline for candidates to file to run in this election was March 28, 2019. Of the 32,291 total reported number of eligible voters registered in the City of Charlottesville, 3,657 turned out for the top vote getter Michael Payne (for a less than 12% voter turnout). Payne co-founded Indivisible Charlottesville, a progressive political action organization, and is a former co-chair of the Charlottesville Democratic Socialists of America.
The City Council's Adopted Budget for FY 2019-2020 (July 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020): The total General Fund Budget of $188,863,920 represents a 5.08% increase over FY 2019.
- Real Estate Taxes - This budget keeps the City’s Real Estate Tax rate at 95 cents per 100 dollars of assessed value, generating $5 million in new revenue over FY 2019. This is the result of residential assessments increasing by 8.7%, commercial by 4.6% and new construction increasing by 1.7%.
- Meals Tax – This budget increases the meals tax rate from 5% to 6% effective July, 1, 2019. The meals tax is paid by consumers of prepared hot foods sold for immediate consumption on and off a premises including restaurant and grocery store food bars. This tax does not apply to foods purchased for home consumption and preparation, which is taxed at 2.5%.
- Lodging Tax – This budget includes an increase in the lodging tax rate (transient occupancy tax or TOT) from 7% to 8% effective July 1, 2019. Considered a consumption tax, the TOT is paid by all overnight guests at area hotels, bed and breakfasts and short-term air bnb type facilities.
The City Council's Adopted Budget for FY 2018-2019 (July 1, 2018 to June 30, 2019): The total General Fund Budget of $179,725,535 represents a 4.70% increase over FY 2018.  (US rate of inflation for this period was 2.08%)
The City Council’s Adopted Budget for FY 2017-2018 (July 1, 2017 to June 30, 2018): The total General Fund Budget of $171,657,127 represents a 5.95% increase over FY 2017. (US rate of inflation for this period was 2.25%) 
The City Council’s Adopted Budget for FY 2016-2017 (July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017): The total General Fund Budget of $162,018,737 represents a 3.60% increase over FY 2016. (US rate of inflation for this period was 1.84%)
The City Council’s Adopted Budget for FY 2015-2016 (July 1, 2015 to June 30, 2016). The total General Fund Budget of $156,391,435 represents a 3.75% increase over FY 2015. (US rate of inflation for this period was 0.68%)
- Education – City Schools were to receive $1.643 million in new funding, nearly $1 million above the 40% funding formula as stated in the Budget Guidelines which, based on the increase in the real estate and personal property tax revenue, generates $790,000 in new money.
The City Council’s Adopted Budget for Fiscal Year 2014-2015 (July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015). The total General Fund Budget of $150,742,327 represents a 1.74% increase over FY 2014. (US rate of inflation for this period was 0.74%)
Issues in the city
In 2016, the city has paid the Novak Consulting Group $101,250 to conduct an efficiency study for its government structure. This comes nine years after the Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service published an earlier study. The study was requested by City Councilor Kathy Galvin and was intended to shape budget discussions for fiscal year 2018.
Place Issue on Ballot
Initiative Referendum availability
Voter petition for an initiative referendum is permitted only if the county, city or town charter includes provisions allowing voters to circulate petitions for such an issue. The charter also would provide the procedures to be followed, including the number of signatures required, the deadline for filing, restrictions on types of questions permitted, etc. Compliance with the provisions of §§ 24.2-684 and 24.2-684.1 also is required.
- The initiative process is only available in the four of the 229 Virginia charter municipalities that have exercised their home rule authority to institute such a process. They are Hampton, Lynchburg, Norfolk, and Portsmouth.
Local recall rules
Recall of local elected officials in Virginia is available in some jurisdictions, including the City of Charlottesville.
Local issues are permitted to be placed on the ballot only if the question is authorized by statute or by charter. In such cases the question is specifically stated in either the city charter or in the section of the Code of Virginia that permits the question. Example: the Direct Election of School Board is found in § 22.1-57.2. The signature requirements also are included in that section.
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- https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/charlottesvillecityvirginiacounty U.S. Census,_"QuickFacts," accessed January 24, 2020
- Web. City Council's credit card use further detailed, Nolan Stout, Daily Progress, Lee Enterprises, December 1, 2018
- Web. City Council approves pay raise, taking its salaries to maximum, Chris Suarez, Daily Progress, Lee Enterprises, May 2, 2017, retrieved October 25, 2019.
- Web. Charlottesville City Council meeting minutes, .pdf, Council Chambers, City of Charlottesville, January 18, 1954.
- Web. Charlottesville City Council meeting minutes, .pdf, Council Chambers, City of Charlottesville, May 3, 1954.
- Web. Mayorsville: Here, everybody's a mayor, Lisa Provence, The Hook, Better Publications LLC, 10 Aug. 2006, retrieved 2 May 2009.
- Web. [Print The Seventies: Central Virginia Ends Decade of Joy and Tragedy], Doug Kamholz, Daily Progress, Worrell Newspaper group, January 1, 1980, retrieved June 27, 2015.
- Web. Gathers, Payne running for City Council, Staff reports, Daily Progress, Lee Enterprises, January 7, 2019, retrieved June 16, 2019.
- Virginia Department of Elections > Results/Reports > Registration Statistics > 2019 Registration Statistics https://www.elections.virginia.gov/media/Registration-Statistics/2019/05/Registrant_Count_By_House.pdf May Statistics, Registrant Counts By District Type House of Delegates, accessed June 6, 2019
- Web. City Manager's Budget Letter 2018, Office of the City Manager, July 1, 2018