Charlottesville Area Community Foundation
The Charlottesville Area Community Foundation (CACF) is a permanent endowment dedicated to improving the quality of life in Charlottesville and the counties of Albemarle, Buckingham, Fluvanna, Greene, Louisa, Nelson, and Orange. A tax-exempt, nonprofit public charity, it facilitates philanthropy through several hundred donor funds while awarding grants from its own Community Endowment. All money from the Community Endowment goes to nonprofit organizations serving the Central Virginia area. Established in 1967 by the leaders of three Charlottesville banks, the community foundation grew slowly, receiving its first bequest in 1969 and making its first grant in 1970. A large bequest in 1986 quadrupled the foundation’s Community Endowment, while in 1995 the Retail Merchants Association established the first donor-advised fund, doubling the foundation’s assets to more than $6.2 million. The Bama Works Fund, a donor-advised fund started in 1998 by Dave Matthews Band, helped grow the foundation even more and made donor funds the primary way in which it distributed funds. In 1988, the foundation incorporated, changing its name to the Charlottesville-Albemarle Community Foundation and then, in 2003, to the Charlottesville Area Community Foundation. Jane Shields served as the organization’s part-time executive director until John R. Redick, a former board chair, took over in 1998. Anne Scott took the helm in 2013, followed by Brennan Gould five years later. In 2015, Scott instituted a new three-track grants process, allowing the foundation to support longer-term projects. Two years later, after white supremacist violence left three people dead in Charlottesville, the Heal Charlottesville Fund was established to aid the survivors and address issues of structural racism. In 2018, Gould wrote in an open letter that the community foundation would focus its work on issues of equity.
- 1 Definition of a Community Foundation
- 2 Founding
- 3 Founders
- 4 Early Years
- 5 Expansion
- 6 Changes in Governance
- 7 Twenty-first Century
- 8 Heal Charlottesville Fund and Equity Focus
- 9 Grant-making
- 10 Board Members
- 11 Executive Directors
- 12 References
- 13 External Links
Definition of a Community Foundation
A community foundation is a tax-exempt public charity—classified 501(c)3 and 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) by the Internal Revenue Service—that raises money and manages philanthropic funds as a permanent resource to improve the quality of life in a given community or geographic region. Community foundations are managed by an independent board representative of the community and by law dispense funds only to nonprofit organizations. In the mid-1970s, the federal government required that community foundations demonstrate “public support,” a test designed to ensure that public charities receive a substantial portion of their funds from a broad group of unrelated donors.
Three bankers, Roscoe S. Adams Jr., Hovey S. Dabney, and William B. Trevillian, established the Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation in 1967 with the purpose of using philanthropy to improve the quality of life in the city and county. Jane E. Shields, also a banker, served as the foundation’s first executive director, a part-time position.
Community foundations were not a new idea. Frederick Goff, a retired judge and banker, created the first in Cleveland in 1915 with three purposes: first, to ensure that the intentions of donors were carried out even as community needs changed; second, to pool donations as a means of increasing the impact of smaller gifts; and third, to separate the investment of assets from their distribution. (Community foundations, including the one in Charlottesville, eventually brought both investment and distribution activities under the same system of governance.)
Seven additional community foundations were created in the United States in 1915, and there were at least 21 well-endowed foundations by 1930. In 1983, there were 236 community foundations nationwide, 374 a decade later, and 699 in 2003, with collective assets totaling $34.2 billion.
“The genius of Judge Goff’s idea is the basic pattern of the Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation,” the board wrote in 1971. “In effect, it is a ‘foundation’ similar to those established by Rockefeller, Carnegie, Ford and other well-known philanthropists, with the important difference that its resources, instead of being donated by one individual, consist of gifts small and large, from many people.”
The Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation employed an organizational plan pioneered by the Indianapolis Foundation, established in 1916. Rather than asking one bank to hold the community foundation’s funds in trust, this plan relied on multiple banks. Indianapolis recruited three, while the New York Community Trust, founded in 1920, used eleven, allowing the foundation to spread its money, interests, and stakeholders throughout the community. The Great Depression led to the widespread separation of trust banks and community foundations, with many foundations legally incorporating rather than acting as trusts. An exception was the Norfolk Foundation (now the Hampton Roads Community Foundation), established in 1950 with connections to Virginia National Bank, which was headquartered in the city. Charlottesville, with its own branch of the bank, modeled itself on Norfolk. On June 14, 1967, Virginia National Bank signed on to the trust, with Citizens Bank and Trust following on June 19 and National Bank and Trust on July 3. As of August 1, the Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation was a legal entity with zero assets.
The community foundation’s three founders formed the original Trustees’ Committee, with each member acting as a representative of a local bank:
- Roscoe S. Adams Jr., Virginia National Bank
- Hovey S. Dabney, National Bank and Trust Company
- William B. Trevellian, Citizens Bank and Trust Company
All were active in community affairs. Adams was a military veteran who, with Dabney, served on the city’s school board in the 1960s. During World War II, Dabney had been shot down over Budapest, and the parachute that saved his life hung in his bank’s lobby. During the public-school desegregation crisis, he served as a director of the Charlottesville Educational Foundation, established by parents to create new, whites-only private schools rather than submit to court-ordered integration. He later served as rector of the University of Virginia. Trevillian served as president of the local Chamber of Commerce.
The original board, called the Distribution Committee, had seven members, including three appointed by the Trustees’ Committee, one by the city’s corporation court judge, one by the president of the Chamber of Commerce, one by the mayor, and one by the judge of the county circuit court. All of them were directors of one of the three trustee banks:
- Dr. McLemore Birdsong
- F. S. Cornell
- Mary Victoria Craw
- W. Harry O'Mansky
- Elizabeth Scott
- Robert E. Taylor
- J. Dean Tilman
They were appointed, as the board wrote in 1988, because of their “broad experience in, and real knowledge of, community needs.” Birdsong was a professor of pediatrics at the University of Virginia, while O’Mansky, the committee’s chairman, was a leader of Congregation Beth-Israel and the owner of the Young Men’s Shop, a retail clothing business. Craw, who hailed from the Wesson firearms family, was the widow of a war hero and active in civic affairs, including the League of Women Voters and the Red Cross. A. Ward Sims, a lawyer, served as the board’s secretary. Jane Shields, the community foundation’s part-time executive director, began her career as a teller at Citizens Bank before retiring as its executive vice president.
In 1970, Charlottesville and Albemarle County were rapidly growing areas with large black populations. The city was 15.5 percent black, the county 13.6 percent. In 1963, Raymond L. Bell, whose family ran the J. F. Bell Funeral Home, was appointed the first black member of the city’s school board. He joined the community foundation’s board in 1993, serving until his death in 2004.
The Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation received few gifts of any size in its first few years, experiencing what a later annual report called “slow acceptance and growth.” The death of Caroline Owsley Green in 1969 led to the establishment of the foundation’s first fund. This so-called designated fund was a memorial trust in her name of $60,000 designated for the benefit of the United Givers Fund (later the United Way). The community foundation’s first grant, of $3,900 to the United Givers Fund, came in 1970.
The death in 1986 of Arline Thomas Kennan, a Charlottesville native whose father founded M. C. Thomas Furniture, resulted in a bequest of $1.1 million in unrestricted assets to the foundation’s Community Endowment, more than quadrupling its size, from $300,000 to $1.4 million. In 1988, the foundation made nineteen grants from the endowment totaling more than $103,000. Recipients ranged from the Virginia Folklore Society and the Oratorio Society of Charlottesville-Albemarle to the Charlottesville Police Department (for “law enforcement efforts against drugs”) and the Blue Ridge Family Alliance for the Mentally Ill. That year’s annual report stressed the community foundation’s “ability to grapple with the issues that confront” the city and county without identifying any particular set of priorities. As the historian Eleanor Sacks has noted, “Most community foundations are general purpose, that is, they support the broad range of charitable interests and efforts in their communities—from the environment, education and the arts to social and economic needs.” That seems to have been the case for the community foundation for much of its history.
The foundation continued to grow, mostly through new ways of attracting investment. In 1992, for instance, the Friends of the Jefferson-Madison Regional Library established the first agency endowment, in which a group invests its endowment with the foundation and receives regular interest payments; as of 2016 there were twenty-eight such endowments at the foundation. In 1995, the Retail Merchants Association sold a credit bureau and used a portion of the proceeds to establish an advised fund, in which the donor plays a role in how the money is distributed. The fund doubled the foundation’s assets, which at the end of 1995 totaled more than $6.2 million.
Donor-advised funds were not new in the United States, with the first one dating to 1931, in New York. However, they became much more popular with the creation, in 1991, of the Fidelity Charitable Gift Fund, a nonprofit arm of the for-profit firm Fidelity Investments. Suddenly, private companies were competing with traditional nonprofits for charitable giving, and donor-advised funds enjoyed runaway popularity. In 2016, Fidelity Charitable raised more money than any other American charity, almost a billion dollars more than the United Way, prompting concerns among some critics because as of 2019 federal regulations do not require that such gifts ever be distributed. Many community foundations now consist mostly of donor-advised funds.
The best known and one of the largest of the Charlottesville community foundation’s donor-advised funds, the Bama Works Fund, was established by Dave Matthews Band in December 1998. Supported through ticket sales and individual donations and advised by a committee of community members, the fund was responsible for a more than 50 percent increase in the amount of grant money awarded in 1998–1999, from more than $201,000 to more than $329,000. By 2019, Bama Works had raised more than $52 million and funded about 2,000 grants at a rate of approximately $1 million per year. “The relationship with Dave Matthews Band through the Bama Works Fund was absolutely fundamental to the growth of the Community Foundation,” said John R. Redick, a former board chairman who became executive director in 1998, “and our assets and grants became a major factor in how local nonprofits were able to operate.”
Donor funds grew quickly after that. In 1998—the year before Bama Works—they accounted for about 12 percent of the total grant money distributed by the foundation. By 2001, it was 86 percent. Increasingly, the foundation’s assets could be categorized as belonging either to donor funds or to the community endowment. The latter consists of funds distributed through grant-making administered by the foundation itself, rather than by donors or their advisors. By 2019, the community endowment accounted for about 25 percent of all the foundation’s grants.
Changes in Governance
As early as 1988, the foundation anticipated the need for a new system of governance. Without ending its relationship with the original trustee banks, the foundation filed articles of incorporation with the State Corporation Commission, which certified them on November 16, 1988. The foundation slightly altered its name to the Charlottesville-Albemarle Community Foundation and combined its Trustees’ and Distribution committees into a single Governing Board. In addition, an Advisory Council of community members was established. In 1990 it numbered thirty-one people, including the founding trustee Hovey S. Dabney, the future board member Ray Bell, and a former president of the University of Virginia, Edgar F. Shannon Jr. The Advisory Council was discontinued after 2004.
Incorporating had little immediate effect on the foundation. Even the name change was put on hold until 1997. Its purpose was to prepare the foundation for the eventual transfer of its assets from the trustee banks. Until then, individual banks controlled particular funds and pursued separate investing strategies, preventing the foundation from leveraging those assets in behalf of its own interests. The transfer probably occurred by 2005, when the banks stopped nominating trustees to the board.
A decade later, the board changed its bylaws, reserving to the board alone the right to nominate new members. The mayor, the Chamber of Commerce, local judges, and, since 2000, the Retail Merchants Association no longer exercised the same influence as the foundation continued to align its governance practices with more traditional nonprofit corporations.
As of 2019, the foundation’s board had fifteen members able to serve up to three consecutive three-year terms.
On December 31, 1997, Jane Shields, the foundation’s part-time executive director since 1967, shifted to the role of part-time associate director. (She retired in 2003.) John Redick, a former board chair, became the full-time director.
In 2003, the foundation changed its name to the Charlottesville Area Community Foundation to underscore its services beyond Albemarle County. At the same time, a seven-fold increase in assets over the previous decade led to the need for more staff; in response, the board initiated the Vision Fund Endowment Campaign to underwrite the foundation’s administrative expenses.
Assets and grant awards continued to grow, and quickly. In 2006, the foundation received a record $18.8 million in contributions, bringing its assets up to $52.7 million. Two years later, after the financial crisis of 2008, that number had dipped, and yet in just six years, by 2014, it had risen to $93.5 million. A year later, assets had grown to almost $142 million.
On November 4, 2013, after Redick’s retirement, Anne Scott became the foundation’s new executive director. In 2015, she and the board instituted a significant change in how grants were made from the Community Endowment. Rather than continuing to cap all grants at $10,000, they created three tracks: 1) Enriching Communities (one year and up to $15,000); 2) Strengthening Systems (three years and up to $300,000); and 3) Shaping Futures (five years and $500,000). According to the board’s 2015 report, the tracks “allow the Foundation to support organizations working to have an impact in different ways.”
The tracks also had the effect of encouraging the foundation to consider its Community Endowment grant-making more strategically. The Shaping Futures grant, for instance, was aligned with a local plan that was based on the National Association of County and City Health Officials’ Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP). Published in December 2016, it articulated priorities such as healthy eating, addressing mental health, and improving access to care.
Early in 2018, Scott resigned, and on June 18 Brennan Gould became the foundation’s president and chief executive officer. She had been director of programs since 2010.
Heal Charlottesville Fund and Equity Focus
During the summer of 2017 several rallies in defense of Charlottesville’s Confederate statues culminated in an event dubbed Unite the Right, which included white nationalist, neo-Confederate, and neo-Nazi protesters, as well as members of the Ku Klux Klan and the so-called alt-right. On August 12, a man used his car as a weapon to attack a group of counter-protesters, leaving one woman, Heather D. Heyer, dead. Two state policemen died when their helicopter crashed, while scores of others were injured in the weekend’s violence. The foundation established the Heal Charlottesville Fund to meet the immediate and ongoing needs of survivors while addressing issues of systemic racism and anti-Semitism through a round of grants.
The Charlottesville community received about $2.1 million in donations after the violence, which included donations directly to the Heal Charlottesville Fund and other funds, including the private Concert for Charlottesville Fund. These funds coordinated to distribute about $600,000 to survivors as of the end of 2019. About $320,000 went to trauma counseling and another $900,000 to grants. About $15,000 went to the Heather Heyer Foundation, while $300,000 was specifically earmarked for long-term programming at the University of Virginia with a focus on education and inclusion.
In May 2019, Brennan Gould explained in an open letter that the foundation “must center our work in equity,” or the pursuit of fairness, access, and equal opportunities. “It is important to acknowledge that our region does not work the same way for everyone,” she wrote, “and that some of our neighbors face barriers that we may not experience or even know exist.” She tied her vision to the men and women who started the community foundation in 1967. They hoped “to establish a lasting community resource dedicated to this region that was rooted in a keen awareness that people living together are necessarily interconnected. Our founders believed that in order to thrive together, we had to value and invest in one another.”
Gould promised that the foundation would assess its own organization in terms of equity issues while thinking about the way it leverages its grants from the Community Endowment, which in 2019 accounted for about a quarter of the foundation’s grant distribution. In particular, she argued that the foundation could achieve a deeper impact “if we and our partners are deploying resources in ways that consider the unique circumstances, power differentials, historical contexts, and systemic barriers that affect community members.”
The Charlottesville Area Community Foundation is a collection of more than 350 funds. Many of these funds are donor initiated and make grants without accepting proposals.
The foundation is comprised of the following types of funds:
- Designated Funds: A fund designated for a specific nonprofit organization(s) that will receive regular gifts from the fund at CACF
- Donor Advised Funds: A fund that allows for ongoing involvement by the donor in determining its use to address issues and needs in the community
- Field of Interest Funds: A gift targeted to have an impact on a particular area of community life
- Scholarship Funds: A fund set up to support students in their pursuit of a higher education. The donor may determine the criteria that students must meet in order to receive the scholarship
- Unrestricted Fund: An unrestricted gift to CACF will help the foundation meet a broad range of community needs
Some of the most prominent funds are listed below.
Spearheaded by a local donor, this fund provides grants to nonprofit organizations working to promote citizen understanding of the economic importance of agricultural and forestry enterprises in Central Virginia and the adjacent areas.
Bama Works Fund
Established in 1998 by Dave Matthews Band, the Bama Works Fund supports charitable programs in the Charlottesville area with a particular focus on disadvantaged youth, needs of the disabled, protection of the environment, and the arts and humanities. Additionally, the fund responds to a wide variety of needs both nationally and internationally.  The Bama Works Fund has made more than 800 grants totaling more than $15 million since its inception. Grant proposals are reviewed by a committee of local citizens who make recommendations to the band.
The CACF Community Endowment is the Foundation’s unrestricted grant-making program that provides support to nonprofit organizations working to improve the quality of life in Charlottesville and the surrounding counties. Areas of funding include human services, education, arts and culture, environment, health, and community enrichment.
As the result of a long-term commitment from the Batten Family Fund in 2009, CACF increased its grant-making dollars with a greater emphasis on larger, strategic grants. The Community Endowment has two grant cycles a year: a spring cycle, focusing on significant grants to area nonprofits in the amounts of $10,000 to $100,000; and a fall cycle, focusing on smaller grants of up to $10,000.
Launched in 2009, this fund is a giving circle for philanthropists in their 20s, 30s, and 40s, in which members combine their charitable dollars, choose a theme, and award grants annually by a group vote.  Since 2009, The Future Fund has given away over $175,000 and engaged more than 325 young professionals in philanthropy.
Louisa County Community Fund
The Louisa County Community Fund (LCCF) in CACF was started as the result of a bequest from longtime Louisa county residents and provides grants to support nonprofit organizations working to improve the quality of life in Louisa County. Grants are made once per year and proposals are reviewed by a committee of Louisa community and business leaders.
Nelson County Community Fund
The Nelson County Community Fund (NCCF) in CACF was established by the Nelson County Advisory Committee to provide grants to support nonprofit organizations working to improve the quality of life in Nelson County. Grants are made two times per year and categories of support include human services, education, environment, health, community needs, and development.
Established in 2005 as the result of a gift from a local donor family, the Prana Fund is a $25,000 grant provided annually. It supports projects that assist children and enhances educational opportunities for young people. Special consideration is given to projects with hands-on learning integrating both environmental education and the fine arts.
Strengthening Systems Awards
- 2019 – Albemarle County awarded $300,000 to fund program coordinator for Yancey School Community Center 
- 2019 – Montpelier Foundation awarded $295,000 to create new social studies program focusing on "hard history" 
Youth Service Award
Since 1994 CACF has brought together one high school senior from each of the ten local high schools in Charlottesville and Albemarle County to form the Youth Service Award (YSA) Committee. Over the course of six months, students learn about grant-making and their community, review proposals, make site visits, and select a local nonprofit serving area youth to receive a $10,000 grant. In total, $180,000 has been rewarded by these student committees.
- Roscoe S. Adams Jr. (1967–before 1988)
- Hovey S. Dabney (1967–before 1988)
- William B Trevillian (1967–before 1988)
Distribution Committee / Governing Board (1970–present)
- Peter A. Agelasto III (2007–2012)
- Charles T. Baber (2004–2011)
- George W. Barlow II (1988 or before–1998)
- Thomas E. Bass III (1990–2004)
- Raymond L. Bell (1993–2003)
- Fritz Berry (1997–2000) [bank trustee]
- William L. Bickley (2004–2007)
- McLemore Birdsong (1970–before 1988)
- Julian M. Bivins Jr. (2004–2012)
- Kathleen Bowman (2010–2013)
- Lucius H. Bracey Jr. (1988 or before–2005; chair 1996–1997; emeritus 2006–2012)
- Antwon Brinson (2020– )
- O. Whitefield Broome Jr. (2011–2019)
- Edward H. Brownfield Jr. (1997–2005)
- Daniel M. Brody (2003–2009)
- Heather L. Carlton (2013– ; chair, 2020– )
- R. William Conant (1988 or before–1991)
- F. S. Cornell (1970–before 1988)
- Mary Victoria Craw (Mrs. Demas T. Craw) (1970–1989; emeritus 1989–2003)
- Alan N. Culbertson (2000–2014; chair 2007–2008)
- M. Corwith Davis (1988 or before–2003)
- William Downer (2007–2010)
- Helene H. Downs (2015– )
- Rhoda Dreyfus (1988 or before–2005; emeritus 2006–2012)
- Louise M. Dudley (2004–2016; chair 2012–2014)
- Libby Edwards-Allbaugh (2017– )
- Ralph L. Feil (1997–2007; chair 2005–2007; emeritus 2008–2012)
- Linda K. Ford (1997–2005)
- Lockwood Frizzell (1992–1997; emeritus 1998–2007)
- Joe H. Gieck (2004–2012)
- Carlton S. Gregory (2005–2008)
- James E. Haden (2013–2020)
- Franklin M. Halsey (2013–2014)
- Bebe Heiner (1998–2003)
- Eric M. Heiner (1988 or before–1996; chair 1993–1996; emeritus 1997–1998)
- J. Dawn Heneberry (1994–1998; 2002–2010; chair 2009–2010; 2010; emeritus 2011–2012) [bank trustee]
- Kristen Henningsen (2020– )
- Robert P. Hodous (1988 or before–1997; emeritus 1998–2012)
- John W. Howard (1994–2003)
- Kat Imhoff (2004–2007)
- Patricia Jensen (1994–2003)
- Eric S. Johnson (2006–2014; chair 2014; 2016–2019)
- James L. Jessup Jr. (1988 or before–2005; chair 2002–2005; 2008–2013)
- Thomas D. Kennedy (2005)
- J. A. Kessler III (2012– ; chair 2014–2019)
- Arthur G. Kiser (1994–1998; 1999–2003; 2005–2010) [bank trustee]
- Kristina Koutrakos (2017– )
- Donald Laing III (2016–2017)
- Audrey G. Lewis (2009–2012)
- Christopher McLean (1999–2005)
- James B. Murray Jr. (1983–2002; chair 1983–1987; emeritus 2003–2012)
- W. Harry O’Mansky (chair 1970–1976)
- Lawrence J. Martin (2004–2014; chair 2010–2012)
- Stephen J. McNaughton (2013–2016)
- Robert A. Moorefield (1994–2000) [bank trustee]
- Meghan R. Murray (2007–2014)
- Kelli E. Palmer (2009–2016)
- F. Troost Parker (1990–1992)
- Susan K. Payne (2004–2012)
- James R. Peterson (2006–2011)
- Jean Printz (1988 or before–1993; emeritus 1994–2012)
- E. Marshall Pryor III (1994–2003; 2012–2017)
- Belinda M. Pullen (1993–1994)
- John R. Redick (1986–1998; chair 1988–1992)
- Antonio T. Rice (2013–2014)
- Joseph W. Richmond Jr. (2011– )
- Andrea Roberts (2014– )
- Charles M. Rotgin Jr. (1999–2008)
- Glenn Rust (2015– )
- Joseph T. Samuels Jr. (2006–2013)
- Leonard W .Sandridge Jr. (2014– )
- Mildred H. Sandridge (1988 or before–1998) [bank trustee]
- Diane Schmidt (2020– )
- Charlotte H. Scott (1992–2003)
- Elizabeth Scott (Mrs. Frederic W. Scott) (1970–1989; emeritus 1990–2012)
- Frederick W. Scott Jr. (2006–2014)
- Shelah K. Scott (1992–2003; chair 1998–2001; emeritus 2004–2012)
- Susan B. Sheffield (2012–2013)
- Zan Short (2003–2011)
- A. Ward Sims (1970–1994; chair 1982) [secretary]
- David G. Sutton (2012–2016)
- Pamela M. Sutton-Wallace (2016–2019)
- Robert D. Sweeney (2015– )
- Robert E. Taylor (1970–before 1988)
- Russell Willis Taylor (2014–2016)
- Henry B. Thielbar (1992–2000)
- J. Dean Tilman (1970–before 1988)
- Constance M. Waite (1990–1993; 1997–2012)
- Elizabeth H. Woodard (2005–2013)
- Bruce M. Woodzell (2011– )
- Jane Shields (1967–1997)
- John R. Redick (1998–2013)
- Anne Scott (2013–2018)
- Brennan Gould (2018– )
- Council on Foundations, Community Foundation Excellence Fundamentals Course: Participant Guide (Arlington, Virginia: Council on Foundations, 2016), 9–10; Eleanor W. Sacks, The Growing Importance of Community Foundations (Indianapolis: The Lilly Family School of Philanthropy at Indiana University, 2014), 5–6.
- The Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (1988), 6–7.
- Charlottesville Area Community Foundation, Annual Report (2016), 3; obituary of Jane E. Shields, http://bit.ly/2YDmau6, accessed August 1, 2019.
- Sacks, The Growing Importance of Community Foundations, 3–9; Council on Foundations, Community Foundation Excellence Fundamentals Course: Participant Guide, 8–9.
- Council on Foundations, Community Foundation Excellence Fundamentals Course: Participant Guide, 15.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Quadrennial Report (1971), 7.
- Hampton Roads Community Foundation, “Our history, people and finances,” http://bit.ly/2z1JnvS, accessed August 15, 2019.
- Virginia National Bank Headquarters District, National Register of Historic Places Registration Form, 14–15, http://bit.ly/2YROfTx, accessed August 15, 2019.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Quadrennial Report (1971), 19.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Quadrennial Report (1971), 21.
- Obituary of Roscoe S. Adams Jr., http://bit.ly/2ywBy0Y, accessed August 1, 2019; oral history interview with George Tremontain (2000), https://at.virginia.edu/2ywexes, accessed August 1, 2019.
- Carol S. Wood, “Former University Rector Hovey Dabney Dies at 83,” UVA Today (February 10, 2007), https://at.virginia.edu/2ywMGLo, accessed August 1, 2019.
- Andrew B. Lewis, “Emergency Mothers: Basement Schools and the Preservation of Public Education in Charlottesville,” in The Moderates’ Dilemma: Massive Resistance to School Desegregation in Virginia, edited by Matthew D. Lassiter and Andrew B. Lewis (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), 80.
- Wood, “Former University Rector Hovey Dabney Dies at 83.”
- Obituary of William B. Trevillian, The Greenville News (Greenville, South Carolina), April 12, 1987, 37.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Quadrennial Report (1971), 21.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (1988), 6.
- Dr. McLemore Birdsong, UVa Medial Alumni News Letter (1963), https://at.virginia.edu/2YBiKIC, accessed August 1, 2019.
- “Charlottesville, Virginia,” Encyclopedia of Southern Jewish Communities (2019), http://bit.ly/2K9zrqh, accessed August 1, 2019.
- A Guide to the Memoirs of Mary Victoria Craw (University of Virginia Special Collections), https://at.virginia.edu/2YAFbgT, accessed August 1, 2019.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (1988), 6.
- Obituary of Jane E. Shields, https://www.hillandwood.com/obituary/1095651, accessed August 1, 2019.
- U.S. Census Bureau, 1970 Census. Charlottesville’s population of 38,880 in 1970 represented a 32.1 percent increase, while Albemarle County’s population of 27,780 represented a 22 percent increase. The state as a whole was 18.5 percent black. The United States as a whole was 11 percent black.
- Interview of Raymond L. Bell, December 22, 1980, From Porch Swings to Patios: An Oral History of Charlottesville's Neighborhoods, prepared by the Department of Community Planning Advisory Board and students of the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1982–1984, https://at.virginia.edu/2H8ERQq, accessed August 15, 2019.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (1994), 12; The Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (2004), 3. The latter mistakenly reports that Bell joined the board in 1997, but his appearance in foundation records dates to 1994.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (1988), 6.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Quadrennial Report (1971), 13. A number of annual reports misspell Green’s name as Greene, like the county.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (1990), 4–5; Charlottesville Area Community Foundation, Annual Report (2016), 3.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (1988), 8–9.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (1988), 6.
- Sacks, The Growing Importance of Community Foundations, 9.
- Charlottesville Area Community Foundation, Annual Report (2016), 4.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (1995), 15; Charlottesville Area Community Foundation, Annual Report (2016), 4. The 2016 report incorrectly notes that the fund increased the foundation’s assets by 50 percent to $6.1 million. According to the 1994 and 1995 reports, they increased from $3.1 million to $6.2 million, or by 100 percent.
- Sacks, The Growing Importance of Community Foundations, 17; Richard Eisenberg, “There’s a Target on Charity’s Booming Donor-Advised Funds,” Forbes.com, August 2, 2018, http://bit.ly/2Kk7A5V, accessed August 2, 2019; Ray D. Madoff, “Charities and Taxpayers Deserve More from Donor-Advised Funds,” Chronicle of Philanthropy, October 27, 2016, http://bit.ly/2YDtQR7, accessed August 2, 2019.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (1998), 14.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (1998), 11; Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (199), 13.
- Charlottesville Area Community Foundation, Annual Report (2016), 4; DaveMatthewsBand.com/BamaWorks, accessed August 2, 2019.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (1998), 11; Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (2001), 18.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (1990), 15.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Community Foundation, Annual Report (1997). This is the first year the annual report employs the new name.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Community Foundation, Annual Report (1997), 2.
- Charlottesville Area Community Foundation, Annual Report (2003–2004), 2.
- Charlottesville-Albemarle Foundation, Annual Report (1993), 8; Charlottesville Area Community Foundation, Annual Report (2003–2004), 17–18.
- Charlottesville Area Community Foundation, Annual Report (2003–2004), 2.
- Charlottesville Area Community Foundation, Annual Report (2006), 11, 32; Annual Report (2008), 38; Annual Report (2014), 43; Annual Report (2015), 42.
- Charlottesville Area Community Foundation, Annual Report (2015), 42.
- “Brennan Gould named president and CEO,” Charlottesville Area Community Foundation website, June 18, 2018, http://bit.ly/33YIGlg, accessed August 26, 2019.
- Allison Wrabel, “Over $2.1M received by CACF for rally healing,” Charlottesville Daily Progress, August 24, 2019, 1.
- “Our Equity Journey: A Letter from the Foundation President,” Charlottesville Area Community Foundation website, May 2019, http://bit.ly/2Zy0f8s, accessed August 26, 2019.
- Web. Bama Works
- Web. Future Fund
- Web. CACF announces Strengthening Systems grants, News Staff, News Article, CBS19 News, July 19, 2019, retrieved July 19, 2019.